Thursday, 31 January 2019

SOLAT DAIM

Dalam suatu majlis,seorang murid bertanya tentang solat WUSTHO sebagaimana di perintahkan dlm surat al baqarah 238.
Allah SWT berfirman:
حَافِظُوْا عَلَى الصَّلَوٰتِ وَالصَّلٰوةِ الْوُسْطٰى وَقُوْمُوْا لِلّٰهِ قٰنِتِيْنَ
"Peliharalah kamu (kerjakanlah dengan tetap dan sempurna pada waktunya) segala solat fardu, khasnya solat Wusta (solat Asar), dan berdirilah kerana Allah (dalam solat kamu) dengan taat dan khusyuk."
( Al-Baqarah 2: Ayat 238)

Ketahuilah solat wustho itu adalah solatnya Roh.
Wustho artinya tengah yaitu tengahnya ruang dan waktu(space and time)
Tengahnya ruang antara depan belakang,kanan kiri,atas bawah yakni HATI sbg pusat(centre).
Tengahnya waktu antara esok dan kemaren yakni yang SEKARANG ini yg abadi.
Jadi solat wustho itu solat yg di tegakkan dlm hati dan di waktu kini yg terus menerus berlanjutan. Kerananya ia juga di sebut sbg SOLAT DAIM (surat al maarij ayat 20)
Allah SWT berfirman:
اِذَا مَسَّهُ الشَّرُّ جَزُوْعًا
"Apabila ia ditimpa kesusahan, dia sangat resah gelisah;"
( Al-Ma'arij 70: Ayat 20)
Bagaimana kaifiyatnya GURU ,tanyanya lagi?
Sebagimana solat secara syariat terdiri dari 3 rukun gerakan,ucapan dan penghayatan/tumakninah.
Begitu juga solat wustho/daim sbg solat hakikat.
GERAK jiwa.
Berdirinya adalah tawakal.
Rukuknya adalah sabar
Sujudnya adalah syukur dan 
Duduknya adalah redha.

Tawakal terhadap harapan dan ketakutan akan masa depan
Sabar dan syukur atas kenyataan di masa kini
Redha dgn apa yg tlh terjadi di masa lalu.
ZIKIR nya adalah zikir nafas .
TUMA'NINAH nya adalah berserah diri pada Allah.
TAHIYATnya adalah makrifat /musyahadah
SALAMnya 
Kekanan menebar kedamaian ke penduduk langit
Ke kiri menebar kedamaian ke penduduk bumi.

Inilah solat hakikat yg di tegakkan para nabi dan para Auliya' terdahulu hingga sepanjang zaman.
Dan
Oleh sebab itulah para nabi dan para wali selalu dlm keadaan bebas dari ketakutan(khoufun )kerana selalu tawakal dan terlepas dari kesedihan(hazn) kerana selalu sabar, syukur dan redha ,serta selalu dalam tenang, sukacita (bushro) krn senantiasa bermakrifat pada Allah.

Sebagimana firman Allah
Ingatlah para wali² itu tidak pernah merasakan ketakutan(khoufun)bagi mereka dan kesedihan (hazn).Mereka itu adalah orang2 yg beriman, bertaqwa dan tenang jiwanya .
Bagi mereka kegembiraan raya (busyro) ada di dlm kehidupan di dunia dan akhirat.Dan itulah kemenangan yg agung (surat yunus 62, 63,64).
Allah SWT berfirman:
اَ لَاۤ اِنَّ اَوْلِيَآءَ اللّٰهِ لَا خَوْفٌ عَلَيْهِمْ وَلَا هُمْ يَحْزَنُوْنَ
"Ketahuilah! Sesungguhnya wali-wali Allah, tidak ada kebimbangan (dari sesuatu yang tidak baik) terhadap mereka, dan mereka pula tidak akan berdukacita."
( Yunus 10: Ayat 62)

الَّذِيْنَ اٰمَنُوْا وَكَانُوْا يَتَّقُوْنَ
"(Wali-wali Allah itu ialah) orang-orang yang beriman serta mereka pula sentiasa bertaqwa."
(QS. Yunus 10: Ayat 63)

لَهُمُ الْبُشْرٰى فِى الْحَيٰوةِ الدُّنْيَا وَفِى الْاٰخِرَةِ ۗ لَا تَبْدِيْلَ لِـكَلِمٰتِ اللّٰهِ ۗ ذٰلِكَ هُوَ الْفَوْزُ الْعَظِيْمُ
"Untuk mereka sahajalah kebahagiaan yang mengembirakan di dunia dan di akhirat; tidak ada (sebarang perubahan pada janji-janji Allah yang demikian itulah kejayaan yang besar."
(QS. Yunus 10: Ayat 64)

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31.1.2019: 7.27 pm

Tuesday, 29 January 2019

29 JANUARI 1819 - STAMFORD RAFFLES DI SINGAPURA

Ayman Rashdan Wong

Esok, tepat 200 tahun yang lepas (29 Januari 1819), Stamford Raffles berjaya mendarat di Singapura, dalam misinya mencari sebuah pelabuhan baharu bagi Britain untuk memecah monopoli perdagangan Belanda di Asia.
Pendaratan Raffles membawa kepada 4 buah perjanjian yang mengilhak Singapura dari Empayar Johor-Riau - peristiwa yang disambut oleh warga Singapura sebagai "founding of modern Singapore".
Walaupun kebanyakan warga Singapura melihat ulang tahun "founding" tersebut yang ke-200 sebagai sesuatu historic moment yang patut dibanggakan, namun hakikatnya ia adalah lebih kepada sebuah tragedi.
Mula-mula, Raffles berjumpa dengan Temenggong Abdul Rahman untuk mendapat izin membuka pelabuhan Britain di Singapura. Itu membawa kepada perjanjian antara Raffles dan Temenggong pada 30 Januari 1819.
Tapi "tuan" sebenar Singapura ialah Sultan Johor-Riau. Sultan ketika itu ialah Sultan Abdul Rahman yang bersemayam di Lingga. Namun pertabalan Sultan Abdul Rahman ada kontroversi sikit sebab baginda menjadi sultan kerana abangnya, Tengku Hussain tidak berada di samping ayahanda mereka, Sultan Mahmud Syah III ketika mangkat. By right, Tengku Hussain lebih berhak mewarisi takhta selaku putera sulung.
Tengku Hussain dan Sultan Abdul Rahman masing-masing disokong oleh Temenggong dan YamTuan Muda. YamTuan Muda di bawah pengaruh Belanda dan Belanda memain peranan aktif dalam pertabalan Sultan Abdul Rahman. Jadi Temenggong dan Tengku Hussain melihat kehadiran Britain sebagai peluang.
Justeru, Raffles menandatangani perjanjian dengan Tengku Hussain pada 6 Februari 1819 dengan janji memberi sokongan kepada baginda sebagai Sultan. Raffles juga bersetuju untuk membayar elaun tahunan sebanyak 5,000 Dolar Sepanyol kepada Sultan dan 3,000 kepada Temenggong sebagai "sewa" Singapura.
Tapi itu bukan bermaksud Sultan dan Temenggong terus "menjual" Singapura. Sultan dan Temenggong menganggap kerjasama tersebut bertujuan mengimbangi Belanda semata-mata. Malah selepas menyewa Singapura kepada Britain, Sultan Hussain dan Temenggong masih in contact dengan Belanda untuk balancing antara Britain dan Belanda.
Takut Singapura terlepas dari tangan Britain, maka Raffles memaksa Sultan dan Temenggong untuk menandatangani Perjanjian 7 Jun 1823 yang melucut kuasa Sultan dan Temenggong terhadap tanah Singapura. Untuk cover, dia offer elaun bulanan 1,500 dan 800 kepada Sultan dan Temenggong masing-masing dan mengekalkan kuasa Sultan dan Temenggong terhadap jajahan mereka.
Selepas Britain dan Belanda mencapai kata sepakat pada 17 Mac 1824 mengenai zon pengaruh masing-masing di Nusantara melalui Anglo-Dutch Treaty, maka Britain bolehlah sembelih Sultan dan Temenggong tanpa segan silu. Belanda tak mahu kacau Britain lagi, Britain tak mahu kacau Belanda lagi. Maka Sultan dan Temenggong tidak lagi mempunyai Belanda sebagai "bargaining chip" atau "leverage" dalam diplomasinya dengan Britain.
John Crawfurd yang menggantikan Raffles (pencen dan balik kampung selepas mencapai KPI) memuktamadkan dominasi Britain ke atas Singapura melalui Perjanjian Persahabatan dan Perikatan (Treaty of Friendship and Alliance) pada 2 Ogos 1824. Nama perjanjian punyalah suci tapi isi kandungannya jahat namati.
Crawfurd offer untuk membeli seluruh Singapura dengan membayar lump sum 33,200 tambah elaun bulanan 1,300 kepada Sultan, dan lump sum 26,800 tambah elaun bulanan 700 kepada Temenggong. Siap offer kalau Sultan dan Temenggong meninggalkan Singapura, mereka masing-masing boleh dapat extra 20,000 dan 15,000 serta pembatalan hutang.
Sultan dan Temenggong enggan, maka Crawfurd menghentikan bayaran elaun yang dijanjikan oleh Raffles. Lepas 3 bulan, akhirnya Sultan dan Temenggong akur dan menandatangani perjanjian tersebut. Temenggong ialah pembesar, di bawah beliau ada ratusan kalau tidak ribuan pengikut, kalau tak ada elaun macam mana nak sara hidup mereka. Trump pun surrender lepas 35 hari. Trump ok lagi ada duit poket sikit, ni Britain langsung memonopoli hasil Singapura dengan melarang Sultan dan Temenggong mengutip cukai dan hadiah dari para pedagang.
Akhirnya, pada 1826, Singapura dimasukkan ke dalam Negeri-Negeri Selat, menjadi jajahan Britain sehingga tahun 1963.
Mark Twain pesan, sejarah tidak sentiasa berulang, tetapi rentaknya sama (history does not repeat itself, but it does rhyme). 100 tahun kemudian, episod yang lebih kurang sama berlaku di sebelah Tanah Arab pula.
Pada 16 Oktober 1916, Thomas Edward Lawrence, atau lebih dikenali sebagai "Lawrence of Arabia" tiba di Jeddah untuk berbincang dengan Syarif Hussain, Raja Hijjaz yang memerintah Mekah dan Madinah mengenai kerjasama menentang Kerajaan Turki Uthmaniyyah.
Keluarga Syarif Hussain memerintah Hijjaz sejak tahun 1201 dan berbaiah kepada Khalifah Uthmaniyyah sejak 1517, tapi sekarang beliau rasa nak memberontak, sebab beliau rasa khalifah kat Istanbul tu dah tak ada keabsahan. Syarif Hussain pula nak try jadi khalifah, lagi-lagi dengan keturunan beliau sebagai Ahlul Bait yang dianggap mampu rally semua umat Arab di bawah satu panji.
Britain tahu pasal ni, jadi Lawrence diutuskan untuk membincangkan hal pemberontakan tersebut. Britain memberi "jaminan" mereka akan membantu Syarif Hussain mencapai cita-cita khalifah tersebut jika Syarif memberi kerjasama untuk menyerang Uthmaniyyah secara bersama.
Tapi akhirnya, bukan saja Britain mungkir janji, malah Palestin juga tergadai. Tanah Arab yang diimpikan oleh Syarif Hussain ("dari Laut Mediterranea hingga ke Teluk Parsi") sebagai jajahan khilafah baharu di bawah beliau dipecahkan kepada 4 negara (Syria, Lubnan, Jordan, Iraq).
Skripnya sama kerana penulis skripnya sama. Britain, master dalam "divide and conquer" telah berjaya memanipulasi tension dalaman sesebuah empayar dan merampas hak mereka step by step.
Malah dalam kedua-dua kes, Britain guna orang macam Raffles dan Lawrence untuk mendapatkan kepercayaan pemerintah tempatan. Raffles bukan saja fasih berbahasa Melayu, mahir tulisan Jawi malah dikatakan memiliki "budi" yang mampu mencairkan para pemerintah Melayu.
Lawrence pula bukan saja fasih berbahasa Arab, pandai seni pedang Arab, malah siap berjubah lengkap ikut gaya Arab. Syarif tengok, masha Allah, macam mana tak yakin dengan "keikhlasan" Britain.
Pengalaman Sultan Hussain dan Syarif Hussain membuktikan bahawa formula bekerjasama dengan orang luar untuk menyelesai masalah dalaman tidak pernah memberi solusi, malah hanya membuka Pandora Box perpecahan bangsa dan negara.
Realpolitik yang berasaskan logik "musuh kepada musuh saya ialah kawan" tanpa mengambil kira maslahat ada risikonya. Apatah lagi berdepan dengan musuh yang licik seperti Britain.
Sejarah menyediakan banyak lesson (ibrah) percuma untuk kita, cuma kita terlalu ego untuk belajar darinya. Sultan Hussain dan Syarif Hussain (nama pun sama, scary) learnt their lesson hard.
29 Januari 2019. Sementara jiran di seberang laut menyambut ia sebagai titik permulaan naratif negara, kita wajar mengenang sejarah pengilhakan Singapura sebagai pengajaran kita untuk 100 tahun yang akan datang.
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29 January 2019 : 6.17 pm

Sunday, 27 January 2019

Malay Origin - Melayu : Dari Mana?



https://youtu.be/9GH1_h0AZD4


Malay origin, from 70,000 years ago to present day.
Sunda Continent Theory 7:55
Yunnan Theory 3:41
Taiwan Theory 4:43

The largest megalitihic site in all of Southeastern Asia, located at Gunung Padang in Java island dated 6,500 years BP (before present) by carbon radiometric dating at 3–4 metres below the surface (12,500 years at 8 to 10 metres below the surface), and the artifacts at the surface date to about 4,800 years BP. The site constructed by Austromelanesoid people (Australoid race) and later modified by Austromongoloid people.

The oldest evidence of human settlement in Sumatera found in Gua Harimau, Indonesia circa 20,000 years BP. The area first inhabited by Austro-Melanesia from 15,000 years BP and later Austro-Mongoloid from 3,000 years BP.
Most complete human sekeleton found in Lenggong Perak, Malaysia dated 11,000 years belong to Austromelanesoid people (Australoid race).
The Srivijayan inscription (Kedukan Bukit Inscription) is a close cousin rather than an ancestor of Classical Malay. This is due to the existence of a number of morphological and syntactic peculiarities, and affixes which are familiar from the related Batak and Javanese languages but are not found even in the oldest manuscripts of Classical Malay. Moreover, although the earliest evidence of Classical Malay had been found in the Malay peninsular from 1303 (Terengganu inscription). Old Malay remained in use as a written language in Sumatra right up to the end of the 14th century, evidenced from Bukit Gombak inscription dated 1357 and Tanjung Tanah manuscript of Adityavarman era (1347–1375).
Bukit Batu archeological site in Bujang Valley, Kedah dated 535 BCE consist of iron smelting technology, river jetty and port administration building, the earliest civilization in island south east Asian started by animistic native of the area and Indianized later in 6th century CE (AD).
The origin of King Dapunta Hyang Sri Jayanasa and the actual location of Minanga Tamwan is still debated by historians. Because of its pronounciation similarity, some say Minanga Tamwan are Minangkabau, mountainous region upstream of Batanghari. While Soekmono argues Minanga Tamwan means a meeting of two rivers (Tamwan means findings) of right Kampar river and left Kampar river in Riau, namely the area around Muara Takus Temple. Another opinion suggest that the Jayanasa-led fleet is from outside Sumatra, which is from the Malay Peninsula as written in Goerge Coedes book The Indianized States of Southeast Asia and Kelantan Traditional Saga Raja Ahmad.

The Y haplogroup DNA displayed in this video, show average estimation frequencies for Malay DNA. Not all individual Malay person have close genetic relatives to South Indian or West Asian DNA and in some places might not have it at all. The O1, O2 and O3 ( Y haplogroup) might also differed in frequencies for some individual Malays. By mean of mitochondrial DNA, peoples (natives) in south east Asia had mitochondrial E which possible time of origin 16,400 to 39,000 years before present and originated in South East Asia.
Before 1800, classic Malay language were already being used in the archipelago, spread via Malacca - Johore culture and trade diaspora. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Malayness

Kutai Kingdom located in East Kalimantan from 350 to 1605 AD a Malay kingdom believed to have been established by native of Borneo. This kingdom adopt hinduism and indian culture.

One of the earliest Chinese records is the 977 AD letter to Chinese emperor from the ruler of Po-ni (Brunei), which some scholars believe to refer to Borneo.
Rencong, or "Rentjong," is a general term used to refer to any native writing systems found in central and south Sumatra, including Kerinci, Bengkulu, Palembang and Lampung. These scripts lasted until the 18th century, when the Dutch colonised Indonesia. These scripts were used to write manuscripts in native languages and in Malay, such as the Tanjung Tanah Code of Law. The Malay writing was gradually replaced by the Jawi script, a localized version of the Arabic script.

http://www.bradshawfoundation.com/jou... Human migration map (open this link with desktop Firefox)



Correction at 1:44. Southern India not marked as part of south Asia because of technical glitch during render stage of this video. It's fig fruit mentioned in 38:35 by the newscaster not canned fruit.

Watch this video with ear phones / headphones for narration clarity. Please do not download and do not upload this video to other channel.

Credit to :
Lancang Kuning - Melayu Riau Channel

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27/1/2019: 9.29 pm

WOMEN AT THE TIME OF THE PROPHET MUHAMMAD SAW

Female Warriors and Nurses in Early Islamic History
By Elmira Akhmetova
We are commonly taught that women in Islam are not advised to take part in battlefields. While discussing the rights of women to be selected as a caliph, Muslim scholars commonly deny it because women are considered incapable to lead a prayer and take part in battlefields as a military commander. Readings of early Islamic history, however, indicate that women during the time of the Prophet SAW were not restrained from fighting! But it was not compulsory for them to take part in battlefields as for men.
Throughout Islamic history starting from the time of the Prophet (SAW), there were many examples of Muslim women who made significant contributions to the improvement of welfare of their societies and public healthcare. The names of nineteen women are cited in Islamic biographical collections (sīrah books) as having participated in battles during the time of the Prophet (SAW), mostly as water bearers and treating the sick and wounded.[i]
The first professional nurse in the history of Islam was a woman named Rufaidah bint Sa’ad, from the Bani Aslam tribe of the Khazraj tribal confederation in Madinah. She lived during the time of Muhammad (SAW) and was among the first people in Madinah to accept Islam. Rufaidah received her training and knowledge in medical care from her father, a physician, Sa’d Al-Aslamy, by working as his assistant. Very soon, she became a professional nurse capable to treat sick and wounded independently, and a capable leader and organizer able to mobilize others with medical skills when needed.
In peace time, Rufaidah would treat the ill in her tent set up outside of the mosque of the Prophet (SAW). During war times, according to Omar Hasan Kasule, she was leading groups of volunteer nurses who went to the battle-fields, and would treat casualties and injured soldiers.[ii] Together with her team, she participated in the battles of Badr, Uhud, Khandaq and Khaibar, and the Prophet (SAW) used to direct that the casualties be carried to her hospital tent. At the battle of the Trench (Khandaq), for instance, the Prophet Muhammad (SAW) instructed that Sa’ad bin Ma’adh who had been injured in battle be moved to her tent. Rufaidah nursed him, carefully removed the arrow from his forearm and achieved haemostasis. As cited in sīrah books, the Prophet visited Sa’ad in the hospital tent several times a day.[iii] It is also narrated that when the Prophet’s army was getting ready to go to the battle of KhaibarRufaidah and the group of volunteer nurses went to the Prophet Muhammad (SAW). They asked him for permission “Oh messenger of Allah, we want to go out with you to the battle and treat the injured and help Muslims as much as we can”. The Prophet gave them permission to go. The nurse volunteers did such a good job that the Prophet (SAW) assigned a share of the booty to Rufaidah. Her share was equivalent to that of soldiers who had actually fought. This was in recognition of her medical and nursing work.[iv]
Rufaidah did not confine her nursing to the clinical situation alone. She went out to the community and tried to solve the social problems that lead to disease. She could be considered both a public health nurse and a social worker. Biographical sources describe Rufaidah as a woman possessing the qualities of an ideal nurse: compassionate, empathetic, a good leader and a great teacher, passing on her clinical knowledge to others she trained and worked with. The names of women who worked with Rufaidah were Umm Ammara, Aminah, Umm Ayman, Safiyat, Umm Sulaim, and Hind. Other Muslim women who were famous as nurses were Ku’ayibat, Amiinat bint Abi Qays al Ghifariyat, Umm ‘Atiyyah al Ansariyat, and Nusaibat bint Ka’ab al Maziniyyat.[v]
Another famous name mentioned in the biographical sources from the early Islam is Umm Umara al-Ansariyyah (her real name was Nusaybah bint Ka’ab), who acted as a nurse and brave fighter during the time of several battles,[vi]including Uhud (625 CE), Hunayn (630 CE) and Yamamah (632 CE).[vii] During the battle of Uhud, Umm ‘Umarah’s sword skills astonished those who saw her. The Prophet (SAW) later stated that in whichever direction he turned in the battlefield he could see her defending and protecting him. The Prophet (SAW) was very impressed with strength and courage of Umm ‘Umarah RA. He smiled and thanked Allah who gave her that success.
Umm ‘Umarah RA herself described her efforts in protecting the Prophet (SAW) accordingly. The Muslims were on the verge of defeat and they were scattering. She, along with her two sons and husband tried to surround the Prophet (SAW) in order to ward off and repel any attack on him. She had a sword in one hand and a shield in the other. If the enemy had been on foot and not on horseback, they would have slain all of them. When one of the enemies attacked her she warded off the attack with her shield; she then pulled at the bridle of the horse to turn it around. Taking this opportunity, she plunged her sword into the horse’s back. The wounded horse fell, taking the rider with him. Seeing this, the Prophet (SAW) called out to ‘Abdullah bin Umm ‘Umarah to help his mother. And together she and her son finished off the enemy soldier.
During this battle of Uhud she sustained at least twelve major wounds; the deepest one, the one on her shoulder, was so deep that she fainted; and it took a year for it to heal. When she regained consciousness her first question was about the well-being of the Prophet (SAW), rather than about her own sons or husband. When she learned that he was fine, she thanked Allah.
Later Umm ‘Umarah RA with other twenty women took part in the Battle of Khaibar, and they were given a share of the booty of war. Umm ‘Umarah RA got expensive dresses and jewellery and two Dinars. In the Battle of Hunayn, she had fought valiantly and received some part of the booty. Later in the battle against Musaylamah Al-Kadthab, she sustained eleven wounds and her arm was cut. She was sixty years old at that time. Khalid bin Walid RA, the General of the Muslim army, boiled some oil and immersed her arm in it to cure her wounded arm; but for Umm ‘Umarah RA, her happiness at the death of Musaylamah was much greater than her grief at the loss of her arm. Her son, Habib bin Zaid Ansari was martyred in this battle, slain by Musaylamah himself.
Another great woman, Umm ‘Atiyyah, whose real name was Nusayba bint Harith al-Ansari, lived during the time of the Prophet (SAW) and also took care of casualties on the battlefields and provided them with water, food and first aid. In addition, she performed circumcisions.[viii]
The name of the companion of the Prophet (SAW), Al-Shifa bint Abdullah, is also worthy to mention here. Her real name was Layla, but the nickname, Al-Shifa (the healing) was given for her profession as a nurse and medical practitioner. She belonged to the ‘Adi tribe of Quraish[ix] and had a strong presence in the early Muslim history as she was one of the learnt and extremely intelligent women of that time. She was literate at a time of illiteracy. She was involved in public administration and skilled in medicine. Al-Shifa used to use a preventative treatment against ant bites and the Prophet (SAW) approved of her method and requested her to train other Muslim women. As is narrated, after the migration to Madinah, Al-Shifa approached the Prophet (SAW), and said, “O Messenger of Allah, I used to do preventative medicine for ant bites during Jahiliyya (period of ignorance), and I want to demonstrate it for you.” He said, “Demonstrate it.” Al-Shifa said, “So I demonstrated it for him, and he said that [continue to] do this, and teach it to Hafsah [a wife of the Prophet].” In another version, he said, “Why don’t you teach this one [indicating Hafsah] the preventative medicine against ant bites, just as you taught her how to write?”[x]She is also known in the history of Islam as being appointed by the caliph ‘Umar ibn Al-Khattab as a muhtasib (market inspector) in Madinah.[xi]
Very soon, starting already from the beginning of the 8th century, the governments began building mobile and permanent hospitals in various parts of the Muslim world to provide healthcare for the public, especially for poor and needy. As a result, skilled women with medical knowledge began being employed at hospitals, which had been called Bimaristan. The first official female nurses, from Sudan, were hired at Al-Qayrawan (Kairouan) hospital, built in 830 by the order of the Aghlabid ruler, Prince Ziyadat Allah I of Ifriqiya (r. 817–838).[xii]
 Notes:
[i] Ruth Roded, Women is Islamic Biographical Collections: From Ibn Sa’d to Who’s Who, (The United States of America: Lynne Rienner Publishers, 1994), 35.
[ii] Omar Kasule, “Historical Roots of the Nursing Profession in Islam,” http://webcache.googleusercontent.com/search?q=cache:http://omarkasule-01.tripod.com/id333.html (accessed on 15 July 2016).
[iii] Ibid.
[iv] Ibid.
[v] See, Ahmad Shawqi Al Fanjari, Rufaidah, Awwal Mumaridhat fi al Islam, (Kuwait: Dar al Qalam, 1980).
[vi] Ibn Sa’d, Kitāb al-Tabaqāt al-Kabīr, Vol. 8, ed. by E. Sachau, (Leiden: 1904-1921), 301 ff; and Walther, Women in Islam, 111.
[vii] Shayan Afzal Khan, Unveiling the Ideal: A New Look at Early Muslim Women, (Malaysia: Sisters in Islam, 2007), 145-150.
[viii] Abdel-Hamid ‘Abd Rahman Al-Sahibani, Suwar min Siyar al-Sahābiyāt, (Riyadh: Dar Ibn Khazima, 1414 H), 211; and ‘Umar Kahala, A’lam al-nisa’, (Damascus: n.p., 1959), vol. 5, 171.
[ix] Muhammad Saeed Siddiqi, The Blessed Women of Islam, (Lahore: Kazi Publications, 1982), 157.
[xi] See, Khan, Unveiling the Ideal, 192.
[xii] M. Surty, Muslim Contribution to the Development of Hospitals, (Birmingham: Quranic Arabic Foundation, 1996), 66. See also, Salah Zaimeche, Al-Qayrawan (Tunisia), (United Kingdom: FSTC Limited, 2004), 7.
Writer is a faculty member at the Department of History and Civilization, International Islamic University Malaysia
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27 January 2019: 12.13 pm

SHAJARAT AL-DURR - An Unexpected Queen of Egypt


By Amir Ashraf
In June 1249CE, the Seventh Crusade under the command of the Frankish King Louis IX landed on the port of Dimyat at the mouth of the Nile River. The Ayyubid Sultan, Al-Malik Al-Salih Najmuddin Ayyub, upon hearing these sad news, rushed back to Egypt from Syria and organized an army at Mansurah. He also raised a commando force that effectively put the Crusaders at bay. He was already critically ill, however, at that time and now his wife, named Umm-Khalil Shajarat al-Durr, entered the stage and played an important role in this critical hour of Egyptian history.
Umm-Khalil Shajarat al-Durr was a beautiful, talented and intelligent lady. She was originally a slave bought by Al-Salih Najmuddin Ayyub, and after giving birth to Al-Mansur Khalil, the Sultan married her. Shajarat al-Durr was a Mamluk and a Turk, belonged to the family of Bahri Mamluks, the Turkish tribe who had settled in the islands around the Nile.
That fateful day, she met all the war generals, made them to swear to fight for the last while the Sultan ordered them to abide all the orders came from his wife. Thus she became the commander-in-chief of the Ayyubid force. She quickly made Mansurah strongly fortified, built a fleet of war galleys and placed them at strategic points along the Nile. Any Crusaders’ attempt to approach Mansurah was severely repulsed by the Egyptian Greek fire, they even tried to build bridges to cross the Nile, but only to be destroyed by the Egyptian galleys.
However, King Louis IX successfully launched a surprise attack on the Egyptians later, crossed the Nile heading towards Mansurah. This was possible thanks to a bribed Arab guide leading the Crusaders to a secret ford. In the meantime, the Sultan also died, now Shajarat al-Durr had to face the situation with utmost intelligence and bravery. She ordered to conceal the Sultan’s death in the meantime while had her Mamluk generals fought valiantly and win the battle.
Meanwhile Turanshah, Al-Salih Najmuddin Ayyub’s son from another wife, claimed himself as the legitimate heir of the Ayyubid sultanate and started to threat Shajarat al-Durr. He crowned himself as the new Sultan, marched to Mansurah from Hasankeyf. Turanshah blocked Crusader reinforcements from Dimyat by using Egyptian galleys, and the intensified battle led to the surrender of the Crusaders. King Louis IX was captured and arrested, later he was ransomed and sailed to Acre.
Shajarat al-Durr was reluctant to give the rulership to Turanshah as he used to drink alcohol, and had a low intelligence with an abusive character, and she complained about these points to the Mamluks. The Mamluks later assassinated Turanshah on the banks of the Nile. On 2nd May, 1250, she was crowned as the Queen of Egypt by the Mamluk Emirs, having the title “al-Malikah `Asmat al-Dīn Umm-Khalil Shajarat al-Durr”.
When the news reached Baghdad, the Abbasid Caliph al-Musta`sim disapproved the queenship of Shajarat al-Durr, sarcastically wrote to the Mamluk Emirs, “If you lack in men, let it be known to us in order that we may send you one”. This was a blow for the queen, as it was a tradition since the days of Salahuddin al-Ayyubi that every sovereign Ayyubid sultans would have recognition from the Caliph at Baghdad.
Nevertheless, she had already ruled Egypt for 80 days, ordered coins to be minted by her name, and even had her name mentioned in the weekly Friday Khutbahs. And she was the first Muslim lady to do so. Later, because of the Caliph’s disapproval, the Mamluk Emirs made Atabey `Izz al-Din Aybak as the new Sultan as he married Shajarat al-Durr, thus passing the throne to him. Atabey Aybak accordingly became the first ruler of the Mamluk dynasty in Egypt, a sultanate that will dominate the Middle East for centuries before the arrival of the Ottomans in 1517.
Shajarat al-Durr had a happy marriage with Atabey Aybak for seven years. But that seems to fade way when Aybak had to marry the daughter of Atabey Badruddin of Mosul, to meet geopolitical needs at that time. Now jealousy kicks in, she could not tolerate of sharing power with her husband’s second wife, so she planned to kill him. A plot was taken, Atabey Aybak was assassinated when he visited a palace bath. Soon afterwards, the Mamluks discovered her role, and she was killed too. Her body was buried in front of a compound of a school she had established.
Although Shajarat al-Durr only ruled as a queen for a short time, her reign witnessed 2 very significant events in history: the defeat of the Seventh Crusade, and the birth of the Mamluk dynasty, which ended 80 years of the Ayyubid rule in Egypt. Shajarat al-Durr was a learned lady and a patron of learning, and had established several schools under her name. Nevertheless, she was indeed a beautiful, gifted, a good writer, and an ambitious player in politics.
 References:
Abdul Ali, Islamic Dynasties of the Arab East – State and Civilization during the later Medieval Times, (New Delhi: M D Publications PVT LTD, 1996).
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PIRI REIS (d. 1553)


HIS CONTRIBUTIONS TO GEOGRAPHY
By Sarah Aliya Azahar
As the archaeologists claim, human beings began having some social, economic and political developments at least since 5,000 years. Many roads, buildings, temples and market places were built in order to create what is today became known as a city, which was the starting point of the word civilizations. These developments required the central government, which will manage the cities in good condition and guide them towards progress. The economic institutions are needed to stabilize societies, the central government of which should utilize the capital for the welfare of the people as its (central government’s) main objective. Later, when the progress moves forward, it created a high-level community development, especially regarding behavior, lifestyle and education. But all of this progress is started from the very basic skills of a learning process, which is called education and knowledge.
Education is the major factor for progress and development of humanity. This essay discusses one of the well-known scholars or a shining star in the field of geography, by the name of Piri Reis, who lived during the Osmanli caliphate. Before we discuss Piri Reis, it should be good if we can have a basic understanding of the field of geography, especially its importance during the Osmanli times.
The word ‘geography’ is from the Greek word geographia, which literally it means “earth description.” The Oxford dictionary defines geography as:
The study of the physical features of the earth and its atmosphere, and of human activity, as it affects and is affected by these, including the distribution of populations and resources and political and economic activities.[i]
Since the ancient times, people needed to travel. When people were making trading outside of their region, like the Mesopotamians had trading relations with the Indus civilization, they were obliged to travel, use sea roads and sailing their ships in order to carry out their goods for trading and to arrive at their destinations. The sea roads were used not only for the trading activities, but also it has been used to travel to other areas, maybe, for performing the Hajj or going to another place in order to obtain education.
The basic knowledge that they applied during their travel was related to astronomy, for example, to find the direction and navigate their journey; mathematics in order to make a calculation of days, month and years of their sailing; and also geography to position the areas encountered during their journeys.  Very soon, travelers learned to design maps with the descriptions of the features of the earth and its atmosphere.
During the Osmanli history, the inhabitants were having not only trading with the outside world, but also the territory of the caliphate was gradually expanding as a result of diplomacy or military campaigns. The Osmanli was very active in the Red Sea, Black Sea, and the Indian Ocean. The Osmanli people and experts used to travel from one place to another. The subject of geography became essential for the administration of a huge territory of the caliphate, to secure the area and sea roads. Such need created brilliant experts in the field of geography and Piri Reis was one of them.
Piri Reis is known to us as a cartographer, or a map-maker in the 16th century Osmanli caliphate. He was also a geographer and an admiral. The sources state that, besides his mother tongue, Piri Reis also knew some other languages such as the Spanish, Italian, Greek and Portuguese. The sources do not mention the exact date of the birth of Piri Reis, the dates presumed are between 1465 or 1470. He was born in Gallipoli in the Dardanelles, he prominent Osmanli naval base. His real name was Muhyiddin Piri. But ‘Reis’ was given later to him, which in the Turkish language means ‘captain’. So Piri Reis means ‘Captain Piri’. His father was known as Haci (Haji) Mehmed and one of his uncles was the well-known Osmanli admiral, Kemal Reis.[
Piri Reis started his career as a geographer during the time of the Sultan Selim I who was passionate about collecting maps and geographical texts. Many scholars believe that his uncle, Kemal Reis encouraged him to join his voyages to the North African coast from 1487 to 1510.  These journeys become the stepping stone for Piri Reis to gather information for his maps, and mark the exact location of certain places and learn about peculiarities of these places. Also, he gathered a rich information about oceans and experienced navigation. This information will help him later in his writing, known as a book entitled, Kitab-i Bahriye.
During the voyage in 1510/11, his uncle Kemal Reis died. Piri Reis left the boat and returned to his hometown, Gallipoli. This was the beginning of his work on maps of the world and on Kitab-i Bahriye. His first masterpiece was the charts of the world, which he completed in 1513. He drew a large scale map which he prepared in two parts with the characteristic of a portolan chart in structure and concept. Portolan is navigational maps based on compass directions and estimated distances, without containing any latitudinal and longitudinal lines, but it includes coastlines and islands. It was drawn based his experience and knowledge he got during his navigation and he also used a number of maps made by other sailors or travelers.  It actually was drawn on the gazelle hide.Unfortunately, only one-third of the map (the Atlantic Ocean and the adjacent parts of the Old and New World) of Piri Reis is survived and the other two-third is lost.
Piri Reis’s famous work was called Kitab-i bahriye, which is known in English as the Book of Maritime (naval) Matters. Its first version appeared in 1521, which was the shorter version consisting of 130 chapters and charts. The book also had the second version, which was more extensive with 210 charts and it was completed by Piri Reis in 1526. This book was designed as a manual for sailing directions. It included his drawing and maps of the cities in the Mediterranean and Aegean coast and described the information about navigation and nautical astronomy. Piri also stressed on the knowledge of navigation, which he considered necessary for a sailor or mariner to know more about the safety matters.
The slogan “safety first” is still the most important slogan in maritime science. Working at the sea is dangerous. That is why Piri Reis was emphasizing on safety matters and described the basic knowledge and important skills that they should know. In this Kitab-i Bahriye, he also discussed his understanding of wind and storms and skill of the usage of the compass.
Piri Reis showed his Kitab-i Bahriye to the Osmanli Grand Vizier, Ibrahim Pasha in its original form during the trip to Egypt in 1524-25, when Piri Reis was the pilot of a ship which was sending the Grand Vizier to Egypt in order to settle the rebellious governor. But it failed to grab the attention from the Grand Vizier. Therefore, Piri Reis revised his book based on the advice of Ibrahim Pasha.
In this second version, he gives more details in describing the location of the stars, the landmarks and the layout of harbors and the monsoons. He also described more information for the war fleet of the Osmanli navy. The most important part in this second version is about the supply of fresh water. Fresh water is essential for survival in the middle of the sea as our bodies could easily be dehydrated and we cannot drink the sea water because it is made up approximately three percent of salt. But human kidneys cannot make urine from a concentration of salts of more than two percent. The sailors have to find a certain area which can supply fresh water for them. Piri Reis in his book described certain places like sheltered bays, lagoons and peninsular, wells and fresh water streams, and all are clearly depicted on his maps.
In sum, I hope that this short essay may give some positive perspective and a new spirit to encourage students to learn more about Piri Reis. Piri Reis was a person who had spent a lot of time working on his masterpiece and his contribution still influencing the modern world in some aspects. The world map that we have today was created based on his works as well. We should be respectful to previous scholars, without them, maybe, we were not able to achieve what we have today.
BIBLIOGRAPHY
Casale, G. (2003). The Ottoman ‘Discovery’ of the Indian Ocean in the Sixteenth Century: The Age of Exploration from an Islamic Perspective. Retrieved November 20, 2016, from
Cerezo, A. (2012). I’m dying of thirst. Can I start drinking seawater?. Retrieved            November 30, 2016, from                                 http://paradise.docastaway.com/island/survival/
English Oxford Living Dictionary. Retrieved November 25, 2016, from
Svatopluk, S. (2012). “Five Famous Ottoman Turks of the Sixteenth Century.” The                          Journal of Ottoman Studies, 40. Retrieved November 10, 2016, from
Svat, S. (1992). “Islamic Charting in the Mediterranean.” In J. B. Harley (Ed.), The
History of Cartography, (pp.269-276). London: University of Chicago Press.
Vocbulary.com Dictionary. Retrieved November 30, 2016, from
Notes:
[ii] Svat, S. (1992). Islamic Charting in the Mediterranean. J. B. Harley (Ed.), The History of
Cartography, (pp.269-276). London: University of Chicago Press, p, 266.
[iii] Svat, S. (1992). Islamic Charting in the Mediterranean. J. B. Harley (Ed.), The History of
Cartography, (pp.269-276). London: University of Chicago Press, p, 270.
[iv] Ibid, 270.
[v] Ibid, 272.
[vi] Paradise.docastaways.com/drinking-sea-water.
[vii] Svat, S. (1992). Islamic Charting in the Mediterranean. J. B. Harley (Ed.), The History of Cartography, (pp.269-276). London: University of Chicago Press, p, 274.
The writer is a final year student majoring in history at the Faculty of Islamic Revealed Knowledge and Human Sciences, International Islamic University Malaysia 
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