Friday, 3 August 2012



Abbas Ibn Firnas
A Muslim scholars at Cordoba, Spain – the first to study the mechanics of flight and made the first attempt at flight. He also constructed a famous planetarium in Spain.

Maslamah al-Majriti
A Cordoban Mathematician – the first original mathematician and astronomer of al-Andalus. He wrote a number of works on mathematics and astronomy, studied and elaborated the Arabic translation of Ptolemy’s Almagest.

A Muslim scholar of Cordoba who developed a new theory of stellar movement, based on Aristotle’s thinking.

Ibn Al-Nafis
A Muslim physician, the first to discovered the pulmonary circulation of blood in the 13th century, well before William Harvey described the systemic circulation in the 17th century.

Ibn Shuhayd
Al-Andalus physician who in a fundamental work recommended drugs be used only if the patient did not respond to diet.

Abu al-Qasim al-Zahrawi
The most famous surgeon of the Middle Ages and “Father of modern surgery”. He was an author of the Tasrif, a book that, translated into Latin, became the leading medical text European Universities during the later Middle Ages. He was also a pioneer in the use of anesthesia.

Ibn Zuhr
The first to describe pericardial abscesses and to recommend tracheotomy when necessary as well as being a skilled practical physician.

Ibn al-Baytar
The most famous Andalusian botanist, he wrote a book called Simple Drugs and Food.

Ibn Battutah
The most famous Muslim traveller. He travelled extensively for 28 years and produced a travel book that proved to be a rich source for both historians and geographers. He was the only medieval traveller who is known to have visited the lands of every Muslims ruler of his time.

Ibn Khaldun
The first historian to develop and explicate general laws governing the rise and decline of civilisations. In fact he was also the first modern philosopher of history.

Famous Muslim physician, wrote many books including a textbook of medicine ‘Kitab al-Tibb al-Mansuri’ (The Book of Medicine for Mansour). He was one of the first to use opium as anaesthesia and established the use of alcohol in medicine.

Hunayn Ibn Ishaq
Muslim scholars of the 9th Century who make the first accurate anatomical diagrams of the eye.

Muhammad ibn Musa al-Khwarizmi
A famous Muslim scholars who developed Algebra and Algorithms. The word ‘algorithm’ is derived from his name.

Abu Bakr al-Razi
Regarded as the “Father of Pediatrics” – wrote the first book which specialised in childhood diseases and initiated the use of antiseptics to clean wounds.

Ibn Sina
A famous Muslim surgeon who compiled the famous 14 volume of medical encyclopedia, “The Canon of Medicine”. His book remained a medical standard in the West up until the early 19th century.

The well-known Muslim scholars who served the Sicilian court, produced very accurate maps, including a world map with all the continents and their mountains, rivers and famous cities.

The first Muslim geographer to produce accurate maps in color.

Muslim mathematicians who established trigonometry as a distinct branch of mathematics.

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